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Eine römische Legion war ein selbstständig operierender militärischer Großverband im Römischen Reich, der die meiste Zeit aus 30Soldaten schwerer Infanterie und einer kleinen Abteilung Legionsreiterei mit etwa Mann bestand. Die folgenden römischen Legionen sind bekannt, haben aber nicht alle zur gleichen Zeit Dieser Name kann auf eine Auszeichnung der Legion (pia fidelis) für /astronot.co​.jpg. Pollard, N: Complete Roman Legions | Pollard, Nigel, Berry, Joanne | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf​. The Complete Roman Legions | Pollard, Nigel, Berry, Joanne | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. - Erkunde ygeilenkirchens Pinnwand „Roman Legions“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Römische soldaten, Römisch und Antike.

Roman Legions

Die folgenden römischen Legionen sind bekannt, haben aber nicht alle zur gleichen Zeit Dieser Name kann auf eine Auszeichnung der Legion (pia fidelis) für /astronot.co​.jpg. Dementieva V.V. Master's dictator in the early Roman Republic (V-III centuries. BC). Yaroslavl, ISBN Legion // Encyclopedic dictionary of. All legionnaires were without exception Roman citizens who mostly served as heavily armed infantry. A legion consisted of ten cohorts and four cavalry divisions. Roman Legions

Archived from the original on Roman legions. Ancient Rome topics. Outline Timeline. Foundation Kingdom overthrow Republic.

Categories : Military units and formations of ancient Rome Roman legions Roman legionary fortresses. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Part of a series on the. Campaign history Wars and battles.

Strategy and tactics Infantry tactics. Hispania Tarraconensis. Disbanded for cowardice in Batavi revolt. Failed to engage Boudica Capitoline Wolf Rome's national emblem.

Ras al-Ayn , Syria. Belgrade , Serbia. Disbanded in Batavi revolt. XX during Batavian rebellion in 70 or at the first Battle of Tapae in XX at Battle of Edessa ?

Only 1 record. XX at Battle of Abrittus ? Kostolac , Serbia. Was X Equestris , Caesar's "mounted" legion. Thunderbolt 12th lost aquila in 1st Jewish War.

Defeated Boudica 's Britons at Watling Street Fought in First Jewish War. Primigenia goddess of Fate. XX in Batavi revolt.

Destroyed in Teutoburg Forest , lost aquila standard, never rebuilt. XX Valeria Victrix. XX in Allectus ' fall ?

Normally, this was because any legion incapable of regaining its eagle in battle was so severely mauled that it was no longer effective in combat.

When Caesar's troops hesitated to leave their ships for fear of the Britons, the aquilifer of the tenth legion threw himself overboard and, carrying the eagle, advanced alone against the enemy.

His comrades, fearing disgrace, 'with one accord, leapt down from the ship' and were followed by troops from the other ships.

With the birth of the Roman Empire, the legions created a bond with their leader, the emperor himself.

Each legion had another officer, called imaginifer , whose role was to carry a pike with the imago image, sculpture of the emperor as pontifex maximus.

Each legion, furthermore, had a vexillifer who carried a vexillum or signum , with the legion name and emblem depicted on it, unique to the legion.

It was common for a legion to detach some sub-units from the main camp to strengthen other corps. In these cases, the detached subunits carried only the vexillum, and not the aquila, and were called, therefore, vexillationes.

A miniature vexillum, mounted on a silver base, was sometimes awarded to officers as a recognition of their service upon retirement or reassignment.

Civilians could also be rewarded for their assistance to the Roman legions. In return for outstanding service, a citizen was given an arrow without a head.

This was considered a great honour and would bring the recipient much prestige. The military discipline of the legions was quite harsh.

Regulations were strictly enforced, and a broad array of punishments could be inflicted upon a legionary who broke them.

Many legionaries became devotees in the cult of the minor goddess Disciplina , whose virtues of frugality, severity and loyalty were central to their code of conduct and way of life.

Montesquieu wrote that "the main reason for the Romans becoming masters of the world was that, having fought successively against all peoples, they always gave up their own practices as soon as they found better ones.

Examples of ideas that were copied and adapted include weapons like the gladius Iberians and warship design cf.

Carthaginians' quinquereme , as well as military units, such as heavy mounted cavalry and mounted archers Parthians and Numidians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Roman legion disambiguation. See also: List of Roman legions. Ancient heavy infantry unit of 1, to 5, men.

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Archaeology and Science. Complete Roman Army. Studies in the Auxilia of the Roman Army. Frontiers of the Roman empire.

See table in article "Auxiliaries Roman military " for compilation of this data. New York, Routledge, pp. The Late Roman Army. Septimius Severus: The African Emperor.

New Haven, Yale University Press, p. The University of Chicago. Retrieved April 2, This is why". Retrieved October 24, Vol 1.

To The Present. Ernest Dupuy, and Trevor N. War , Gwynne Dyer. The Punic Wars , Adrian Goldsworthy.

Cornell "Legion GmbH. Taylor [1]. Humanities Dimensions History. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link CS1 maint: location link. The 12th Fulminata had a thunderbolt as its emblem.

Once the majority of conflicts were over and the legion had helped Caesar achieve an all-round victory in grabbing power over imperial Rome, the legionaries were pensioned off and given lands in Parma.

However, the legion must have been levied again sometimes later as this unit has been documented as guarding the crossing of the Euphrates River as late as the beginning of the fifth century.

The Cyrenaica Legion was active in different shapes and sizes from its formation in 31 BC all the way up to the early years of the fifth century.

From the Battle of Actium in 31 BC to one of the many Jewish revolts between and AD, the Cyrenaica Legion had an influential presence during many major events in ancient Roman history.

The name could also have been given to mark some of its notable achievements in that region. Regardless of the mystery shrouding its inception, Legio III Cyrenaica was definitely used by Emperor Augustus to maintain control over contemporary Egypt which he has annexed around 30 BC.

From then on, historians state that the legion was under the command of either Lepidus or Marc Antony, both being members of the Second Triumvirate.

The legion went on to stay in Egypt for more than a century and a half and became so adapted to Egyptian culture that many Cyrenaica legionaries started to worship the Egyptian god Ammon.

Many of the conservative Roman republicans had fled to Greece. The Legio IV got its first taste of action in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus when Caesar scored a decisive victory over Pompey.

The legion then settled in the province of Macedonia whereupon it became known as the Macedonica Legion. Soon, Caesar enlisted the Macedonica Legion to fight in his campaign against the Parthians.

But right around this time, he was brutally murdered and plans for the Parthian invasion were called off. Mark Antony seized the opportunity to tap in the Macedonica force and actively involved it in his campaigns in eastern Italy.

It has been documented that the Roman commander was particularly impressed by the bravery and heroics of Legio IX in the battle against the Nervians.

When Caesar fell, the legion was again levied into the Roman military by his heir Octavian. Commander Octavian immediately tasked it with annexing the city of Sicily which was then under the control of his arch enemy Sextus Pompeius.

The Legio Hispana Triumphalis, along with other legions enlisted in the campaign by Octavian, soon brought the whole of Sicily under Roman rule.

Once Sicily was annexed, Octavian declared himself the emperor and became Augustus. He also sent the Ninth Legion to maintain control of the Balkans.

It was around 43 AD when the legion was brought back into action in the Roman invasion of Britain. Historians state that the legion suffered a massive defeat at the Battle of Camulodunum during the infamous rebellion of Boudica.

A huge number of legionaries was killed and whatever force remained was then used to reinforce the Germania provinces. Contrary to the popular belief that it got the Germanica cognomen because its soldiers originated in Germany, almost all the Germanica legionaries were Roman.

It was their outstanding service in contemporary Germany that earned them the said cognomen.

The Germanica then took part in a decade-long conflict against the Cantabrians under the leadership of Augustus. Together with the Second Augusta Legion, Germanica helped build the whole new colony of Acci in Spain during the same period.

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The property requirements were abolished by Marius, so that the bulk of recruits were henceforth from the landless citizens, who would be most attracted to the paid employment and land offered after their service.

In the last century of the Republic, proconsuls governing frontier provinces became increasingly powerful. Their command of standing legions in distant and arduous military campaigns resulted in the allegiance of those units transferring from the Roman state to themselves.

These imperatores lit: victorious generals, from the title imperator they were hailed with by their troops frequently fell out with each other and started civil wars to seize control of the state.

In this context, the imperatores raised many legions that were not authorised by the Senate, sometimes having to use their own resources.

As civil wars were resolved, many of these "private" units would be disbanded, only for more to be raised to fight the next civil war.

The legions included in the following list had a long enough history to be somehow remarkable. Most of them were levied by Julius Caesar and later included into Octavian 's army, some of them were levied by Marc Antony.

The numbering of the legions is confusing, since several legions shared the same number with others.

Augustus numbered the legions he founded himself from I, but also inherited numbers from his predecessors. Each emperor normally numbered the legions he raised himself starting from I.

However, even this practice was not consistently followed. For example, Vespasian kept the same numbers as before for legions he raised from disbanded units.

Trajan 's first legion was numbered XXX because there were 29 other legions in existence at the time it was raised; but the second Trajanic legion was given the sequential number II.

These three legions are without titles, suggesting that in disgrace their titles may have been deliberately forgotten or left unmentioned.

As a result of this somewhat chaotic evolution, the legion's title became necessary to distinguish between legions with the same number.

Legions often carried several titles, awarded after successive campaigns, normally by the ruling emperor e.

XII Fulminata was also awarded: paterna fatherly , victrix victorious , antiqua venerable , certa constans reliable, steadfast and Galliena Gallienus '.

Pia fidelis loyal and faithful , fidelis constans and others were titles awarded to several legions, sometimes several times to the same legion.

Only the most established, commonly used titles are displayed on this table. Legions bearing the personal name of an emperor, or of his gens clan e.

Augusta , Flavia were either founded by that Emperor or awarded the name as a mark of special favour.

This shows the castra base where the legion spent the longest period during the Principate. Legions often shared the same base with other legions.

Detachments of legions were often seconded for lengthy periods to other bases and provinces, as operational needs demanded. Legions often sported more than one emblem at the same time, and occasionally changed them.

Legions raised by Caesar mostly carried a bull emblem originally; those of Augustus mostly a Capricorn. For legions that are documented into the 4th century and beyond, we do not know when or how they were terminated.

For legions disappearing from the record before , the reason certain or likely is given as:. Province names and borders are assumed throughout the Principate period as at , during the rule of Trajan , and after the annexation of Dacia and Arabia Petraea.

The map above shows provinces at the end of Trajan's reign, They are the same as in , except that Armenia and Mesopotamia have been annexed they were abandoned soon after Trajan's death ; and Pannonia has been split into two the split occurred c.

Diocletian reorganized the Roman army, in order to better counter the threat of the Germanic peoples of northern Europe as well as that of the Persians from the East.

The army was formed by border and field units. Legions also included a small ala , or cavalry, unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1, to 1, men, and there were more of them.

In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions limitanei may have become even smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx.

For most of the Roman Imperial period, the legions formed the Roman army's elite heavy infantry , recruited exclusively from Roman citizens, while the remainder of the army consisted of auxiliaries , who provided additional infantry and the vast majority of the Roman army's cavalry.

Provincials who aspired to citizenship gained it when honourably discharged from the auxiliaries. The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted mostly of auxiliaries rather than legions.

Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, notably Legio V Macedonica , which was founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt.

Because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms c. To date, about 50 have been identified.

The republican legions were composed of levied men that paid for their own equipment and thus the structure of the Roman army at this time reflected the society, and at any time there would be four consular legions with command divided between the two ruling consuls and in time of war extra legions could be levied.

Toward the end of the 2nd century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army.

This prompted consul Gaius Marius to remove property qualifications and decree that all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for service in the Roman army with equipment and rewards for fulfilling years of service provided by the state.

The Roman army became a volunteer, professional and standing army which extended service beyond Roman citizens but also to non-citizens who could sign on as auxillia auxiliaries and were rewarded Roman citizenship upon completion of service and all the rights and privileges that entailed.

In the time of Augustus , there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25—35 permanent standing legions and this remained the figure for most of the empire's history.

The legion evolved from 3, men in the Roman Republic to over 5, men in the Roman Empire , consisting of centuries as the basic units.

Until the middle of the first century, ten cohorts about men made up a Roman legion. This was later changed to nine cohorts of standard size with six centuries at 80 men each with the first cohort being of double strength five double-strength centuries with men each.

By the fourth century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1, to 1, men, and there were more of them. This had come about as the large formation legion and auxiliary unit, 10, men, was broken down into smaller units - originally temporary detachments - to cover more territory.

In terms of organisation and function, the Republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. In the period before the raising of the legio and the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Republic, forces are described as being organized into centuries of roughly one hundred men.

These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them. Such independent organization persisted until the 2nd century BC amongst light infantry and cavalry, but was discarded completely in later periods with the supporting role taken instead by allied troops.

The roles of century leader later formalized as a centurion , second in command and standard bearer are referenced in this early period.

With this all Roman able-bodied, property-owning male citizens were divided into five classes for military service based on their wealth and then organized into centuries as sub-units of the greater Roman army or legio multitude.

Joining the army was both a duty and a distinguishing mark of Roman citizenship; during the entire pre-Marian period the wealthiest land owners performed the most years of military service.

These individuals would have had the most to lose should the state have fallen. At some point, possibly in the beginning of the Roman Republic after the kings were overthrown , the legio was subdivided into two separate legions, each one ascribed to one of the two consuls.

In the first years of the Republic, when warfare was mostly concentrated on raiding, it is uncertain if the full manpower of the legions was summoned at any one time.

In BC, when three foreign threats emerged, the dictator Manius Valerius Maximus raised ten legions which Livy says was a greater number than had been raised previously at any one time.

Also, some warfare was still conducted by Roman forces outside the legionary structure, the most famous example being the campaign in BC by the clan army of gens Fabia against the Etruscan city of Veii in which the clan was annihilated.

Legions became more formally organized in the 4th century BC, as Roman warfare evolved to more frequent and planned operations, and the consular army was raised to two legions each.

In the Republic, legions had an ephemeral existence. Except for Legio I to IV, which were the consular armies two per consul , other units were levied by campaign.

Rome's Italian allies were required to provide approximately ten cohorts auxilia were not organized into legions to support each Roman Legion.

Each of these three lines was subdivided into usually 10 chief tactical units called maniples. A maniple consisted of two centuries and was commanded by the senior of the two centurions.

At this time, each century of hastati and principes consisted of 60 men; a century of triarii was 30 men.

These 3, men twenty maniples of men, and ten maniples of 60 men , together with about 1, velites and cavalry gave the mid Republican "manipular" legion a nominal strength of about 4, men.

The Marian reforms of Gaius Marius enlarged the centuries to 80 men, and grouped them into six-century "cohorts" rather than two-century maniples.

Each century had its own standard and was made up of ten units contubernia of eight men who shared a tent, a millstone, a mule and cooking pot.

Following the reforms of the general Marius in the 2nd century BC, the legions took on the second, narrower meaning that is familiar in the popular imagination as close-order citizen heavy infantry.

At the end of the 2nd century BC, Gaius Marius reformed the previously ephemeral legions as a professional force drawing from the poorest classes, enabling Rome to field larger armies and providing employment for jobless citizens of the city of Rome.

However, this put the loyalty of the soldiers in the hands of their general rather than the State of Rome itself. This development ultimately enabled Julius Caesar to cross the Rubicon with an army loyal to him personally and effectively end the Republic.

The legions of the late Republic and early Empire are often called Marian legions. He justified this action to the Senate by saying that in the din of battle he could not distinguish Roman from ally.

This effectively eliminated the notion of allied legions; henceforth all Italian legions would be regarded as Roman legions, and full Roman citizenship was open to all the regions of Italy.

At the same time, the three different types of heavy infantry were replaced by a single, standard type based on the Principes : armed with two heavy javelins called pila singular pilum , the short sword called gladius , chain mail lorica hamata , helmet and rectangular shield scutum.

The role of allied legions would eventually be taken up by contingents of allied auxiliary troops, called Auxilia. Auxilia contained specialist units, engineers and pioneers, artillerymen and craftsmen, service and support personnel and irregular units made up of non-citizens, mercenaries and local militia.

These were usually formed into complete units such as light cavalry, light infantry or velites , and labourers. There was also a reconnaissance squad of 10 or more light mounted infantry called speculatores who could also serve as messengers or even as an early form of military intelligence service.

As part of the Marian reforms, the legions' internal organization was standardized. Each legion was divided into cohorts.

Prior to this, cohorts had been temporary administrative units or tactical task forces of several maniples, even more transitory than the legions themselves.

Now the cohorts were ten permanent units, composed of 6 centuries and in the case of the first cohort 5 double strength centuries each led by a centurion assisted by an optio.

The cohorts came to form the basic tactical unit of the legions. Ranking within the legion was based on length of service, with the senior Centurion commanding the first century of the first cohort; he was called the primus pilus First Spear , and reported directly to the superior officers legates and tribuni.

All career soldiers could be promoted to the higher ranks in recognition of exceptional acts of bravery or valour. A newly promoted junior Centurion would be assigned to the sixth century of the tenth cohort and slowly progressed through the ranks from there.

Every legion had a large baggage train, which included mules 1 mule for every 8 legionaries just for the soldiers' equipment.

To make this easier, he issued each legionary a cross stick to carry their loads on their shoulders. The soldiers were nicknamed Marius' Mules because of the amount of gear they had to carry themselves.

This arrangement allowed for the possibility for the supply train to become temporarily detached from the main body of the legion, thus greatly increasing the army's speed when needed.

A typical legion of this period had 5, legionaries as well as a large number of camp followers, servants and slaves.

Legions could contain as many as 11, fighting men when including the auxiliaries. During the Later Roman Empire, the legion was reduced in size to 1, to allow for easier provisioning and to expand the regions under surveillance.

Numbers would also vary depending on casualties suffered during a campaign; Julius Caesar 's legions during his campaign in Gaul often only had around 3, men.

On that September day, he and his mounted auxiliaries were deputized to march ahead and rally some of his own tribesmen to help in putting down the rebellion.

A rival chieftain, Segestes, repeatedly warned Varus that Arminius was a traitor, but Varus ignored him. Arminius had instructed the Romans to make what he had described as a short detour, a one- or two-day march, into the territory of the rebels.

As they progressed, the line of Roman troops—already seven or eight miles long, including local auxiliaries, camp followers and a train of baggage carts pulled by mules—became dangerously extended.

Meanwhile, a violent rain and wind came up that separated them still further, while the ground, that had become slippery around the roots and logs, made walking very treacherous for them, and the tops of the trees kept breaking off and falling down, causing much confusion.

The nearest Roman base lay at Haltern, 60 miles to the southwest. So Varus, on the second day, pressed on doggedly in that direction.

On the third day, he and his troops were entering a passage between a hill and a huge swamp known as the Great Bog that, in places, was no more than 60 feet wide.

As the increasingly chaotic and panicky mass of legionnaires, cavalrymen, mules and carts inched forward, Germans appeared from behind trees and sand-mound barriers, cutting off all possibility of retreat.

Varus understood that there was no escape. Rather than face certain torture at the hands of the Germans, he chose suicide, falling on his sword as Roman tradition prescribed.

Most of his commanders followed suit, leaving their troops leaderless in what had become a killing field. Only a handful of survivors managed somehow to escape into the forest and make their way to safety.

The news they brought home so shocked the Romans that many ascribed it to supernatural causes, claiming a statue of the goddess Victory had ominously reversed direction.

They were an informed, dynamic, rapidly changing people, who practiced complex farming, fought in organized military units, and communicated with each other across very great distances.

More than 10 percent of the entire imperial army had been wiped out—the myth of its invincibility shattered. In the wake of the debacle, Roman bases in Germany were hastily abandoned.

Augustus, dreading that Arminius would march on Rome, expelled all Germans and Gauls from the city and put security forces on alert against insurrections.

Six years would pass before a Roman army would return to the battle site. The scene the soldiers found was horrific. Heaped across the field at Kalkriese lay the whitening bones of dead men and animals, amid fragments of their shattered weapons.

Human heads were nailed everywhere to trees. Germanicus, ordered to campaign against the Cherusci, still under the command of Arminius, pursued the tribe deep into Germany.

But the wily chieftain retreated into the forests, until, after a series of bloody but indecisive clashes, Germanicus fell back to the Rhine, defeated.

But as his power grew, jealous rivals began to defect from his cause. With the abdication of the Romans from Germany, the Kalkriese battlefield was gradually forgotten.

Even the Roman histories that recorded the debacle were lost, sometime after the fifth century, during the collapse of the empire under the onslaught of barbarian invasions.

As a consequence, Arminius was hailed as the first national hero of Germany. At 87 feet high, and mounted on an foot stone base, it was the largest statue in the world until the Statue of Liberty was dedicated in Not surprisingly, the monument became a popular destination for Nazi pilgrimages during the s.

But the actual location of the battle remained a mystery. More than sites, ranging from the Netherlands to eastern Germany, were proposed.

He had previously assisted archaeologists in England during his spare time, using a metal detector to search for traces of Roman roads.

Captain Clunn introduced himself to the director of the Osnabrück museum, Wolfgang Schlüter, and asked him for guidance.

The British officer promised to turn over to the museum anything he found.