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Johannis , Saint - Nicolai. Sur le bord sud du centre-ville est la Lunebourg Water Tower qui agit maintenant comme une tour d'observation.

Lüneburg fait partie de la compagnie de transport Hamburger Verkehrsverbund. Il y a 11 lignes de bus dans la zone urbaine de Lüneburg.

Les villes les plus proches facilement accessibles par chemin de fer sont Hambourg , Hanovre , Lübeck , Lauenburg , Uelzen et Winsen. Source Authors Original.

Previous article Next article. Pour d' autres utilisations, voir Lüneburg homonymie. Lieu de Lüneburg. Lüneburg Town Hall.

Ulrich Madge SPD. Winsen Luhe , Hamburg-Harburg 18 km 11 mi , 36 km. Hamburg-Bergedorf , Schwarzenbek , Lübeck 32 km 20 mi , 43 km 27 mi , 87 km 54 mi.

More likely, the heath was originally formed by clearances during the Bronze Age. The old town Altstadt of Lüneburg lies above a salt dome which is the town's original source of prosperity.

However, the constant mining of the salt deposits over which the town stands has also resulted in the sometimes gradual, sometimes dramatically pronounced, sinking of various areas of the town.

On the western edge of the town is the Kalkberg , a small hill and former gypsum quarry. The motto Mons, Pons, Fons "Hill, bridge, spring" characterised the development of the town from the 8th century as it coalesced from initially three, and later four, areas of settlement.

These areas were the refuge castle on the — at that time considerably higher — Kalkberg , together with its adjoining settlement the Marktviertel or "Market Quarter" , the village of Modestorpe between the bridge over the river Ilmenau and the large square, Am Sande the Sandviertel or "Sand Quarter" , and the saline with its walled settlement for the work force the Sülzviertel or "Salt Quarter".

Not until the 13th century was the river port settlement the Wasserviertel or "Waterside Quarter" built between the market place and the Ilmenau.

The resulting shape of the town thus formed did not change until its expansion in the late 19th century and it is still clearly visible today.

The houses in the historic quarter between the Lüneburg Saltworks today the German Salt Museum and the Kalkberg were built above a salt dome that was excavated by the saltworks and which extended to just below the surface of the ground.

As a result of the increasing quantities of salt mined with improved technical equipment after , the ground began to sink by several metres.

This resulted in the so-called Senkungsgebiet or "subsidence area". The houses there and the local church St.

Lambert's lost their stability and had to be demolished. Because of this subsidence, and because salt mining was increasingly unprofitable, the saltworks were finally closed in One side of the saltworks now houses a supermarket, while the other is the German Salt Museum.

The subsidence has been monitored at about stations since every two years. The land has not quite stopped subsiding yet, but it is stable enough that new construction has taken place on it, and several historic buildings which had previously been damaged or demolished have been restored.

The subsidence can still be clearly seen even today. This depression extends as far as the Lambertiplatz square. Near the church St. Michaelis , other consequences of the subsidence can be seen in its sloping columns and the west wing of the nave.

Current subsidence movements can be seen in the road known as Ochtmisser Kirchsteig. The first signs of human presence in the area of Lüneburg date back to the time of Neanderthal Man : 56 axes, estimated at , years old, were uncovered during the construction in the s of the autobahn between Ochtmissen and Bardowick.

The site of the discovery at Ochtmissen was probably a Neanderthal hunting location where huntsmen skinned and cut up the animals they had caught.

The area was almost certainly not continuously inhabited at that time, however, due to the various glaciations that lasted for millennia.

The first indication of a permanent, settled farming culture in the area was found not far from the site of the Neanderthal discovery in the river Ilmenau between Lüne and Bardowick.

This was an axe that is described as a Schuhleistenkeil or " shoe last wedge" due to its shape. It dates to the 6th century BC and is now in the collection of the Lüneburg Museum.

Since the Bronze Age , the Lüneburg hill known as the Zeltberg has concealed a whole range of prehistoric and early historic graves, which were laid out by people living in the area of the present-day town of Lüneburg.

One of the oldest finds from this site is a so-called Unetice flanged axe Aunjetitzer Randleistenbeil which dates to BC. The land within the town itself has also yielded a number of ice age urns that were already being reported in the 18th century.

These discoveries are, however, like those from the Lüneburger Kalkberg — they went into the private collections of several 18th century scholars and, with a few exceptions, were lost when the scholars died.

Also worth mentioning in this regard are the Lombard Urnfield graves on the Lüneburg Zeltberg and Oedeme from the first few centuries AD.

In the Middle Ages , there several discoveries were made on the site of the town, for example on the site of the old village of Modestorpe not far from St.

John's Church Johanniskirche , at the Lambertiplatz near the saltworks and in the old Waterside Quarter.

Lüneburg was first mentioned in medieval records in a deed signed on 13 August, AD, in which Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor granted "the tax from Lüneburg to the monastery built there in honour of Saint Michael" German: den Zoll zu Lüneburg an das zu Ehren des heiligen Michaels errichtete Kloster , Latin: teloneum ad Luniburc ad monasterium sancti Michahelis sub honore constructum.

The Elbe-Germanic name Hliuni corresponds to the Lombard word for "refuge site". From archaeological finds, it is clear that the area around Lüneburg had already been settled in the museum of the Principality of Lüneburg, for example, there is a whole range of artefacts that were found here and the saltworks had already started production.

According to tradition, the salt was first discovered by a hunter who observed a wild boar bathing in a pool of water, shot and killed it, and hung the coat up to dry.

When it was dry, he discovered white crystals in the bristles — salt. Later he returned to the site of the kill and located the salt pool, the first production of salt on the site took place.

In the town hall is a bone preserved in a glass case; legend has it that this is the preserved leg-bone of the boar. It was here that the Lüneburg Saltworks was subsequently established for many centuries.

In spite of its lucrative saltworks, Lüneburg was originally subordinated to the town of Bardowick only a few miles to the north. Bardowick was older and was an important trading post for the Slavs.

Bardowick's prosperity — it had seven churches — was based purely on the fact that no other trading centres were tolerated.

Only when Bardowick refused to pay allegiance to Henry the Lion was it destroyed by him in , whereupon Lüneburg was given town privileges Stadtrechte and developed into the central trading post in the region in place of Bardowick.

The Polabian name for Lüneburg is Glain written as Chlein or Glein in older German sources , probably derived from glaino Slavonic : glina which means "clay".

As a consequence of the monopoly that Lüneburg had for many years as a supplier of salt within the North German region, a monopoly not challenged until much later by French imports, it very quickly became a member of the Hanseatic League.

The League was formed in in Lübeck , initially as a union of individual merchants, but in it met as a federation of trading towns at the first general meeting of the Hansetag.

Lüneburg's salt was needed in order to pickle the herring caught in the Baltic Sea and the waters around Norway so that it could be preserved for food inland during periods of fasting when fish not meat was permitted.

The Scania Market at Scania in Sweden was a major fish market for herring and became one of the most important trade events in Northern Europe in the Middle Ages.

Lüneburg's salt was in great demand and the town quickly became one of the wealthiest and most important towns in the Hanseatic League, together with Bergen and Visby the fish suppliers and Lübeck the central trading post between the Baltic and the interior.

With the opening of the Stecknitz Canal in salt could be transported by cog from the Lübeck salt warehouses, the Salzspeicher.

Around the year , the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg emerged, ruled by a family whose aristocratic lines repeatedly divided and re-united.

The smaller states that kept re-appearing as a result, and which ranked as principalities, were usually named after the location of the ducal seat.

Thus between and a Principality of Lüneburg was created for the first time, with Lüneburg as the seat of the royal Residenz. In , in the wake of the Lüneburg War of Succession , rebel citizens threw the princes out of the town and destroyed their royal castle on the Kalkberg along with the nearby monastery.

The state peace treaty in granted their demand to become a free imperial town , a status they were able to defend until The money now stayed in the town, enabling fine houses and churches to be built.

In Lüneburg was accorded the staple right. This forced merchants who travelled through the area with their carts to stop in Lüneburg, unload their wares, and offer them for sale for a certain period.

So that merchants could not go around Lüneburg, an impassable defensive barrier was built west of the town in ; a similar barrier was built east of the town in The Lüneburg Prelates' War caused a crisis from to This was not a war in the proper sense, but rather a bitter dispute between the town council and those members of the clergy who were also part-owners of the town's saltworks.

Since , Lüneburg has once again held the title of a Hanseatic town. With the demise of the Hanseatic League — and the absence of herrings around around Falsterbo in Scania — the biggest customers of Lüneburg's salt broke away and the town rapidly became impoverished.

Hardly any new houses were built in central Lüneburg after this time, which is why the historical appearance of the town centre has remained almost unchanged until the present day.

In the centuries after the collapse of the League, it was as if Lüneburg had fallen into a Sleeping Beauty slumber.

Heinrich Heine , whose parents lived in Lüneburg from to , called it his "residence of boredom" Residenz der Langeweile.

Near the end of the 19th century Lüneburg evolved into a garrison town, and it remained so until the s. In the Lüneburg Special Children's Ward, part of the Lüneburg State Mental Hospital, it is suspected that over children were killed during the Second World War as part of the official Nazi child euthanasia programme.

In Lüneburg surfaced once again in the history books when, south of the town on the hill known as the Timeloberg near the village of Wendisch Evern the German Instrument of Surrender was signed that brought the Second World War in Europe to an end.

The location is presently inaccessible to the general public as it lies within a military out-of-bounds area.

Only a small monument on a nearby track alludes to the event. On 23 May Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler took his own life in Lüneburg whilst in British Army custody by biting into a potassium cyanide capsule embedded in his teeth before he could be properly interrogated.

He was subsequently buried in an unmarked location in a nearby forest. Even before the Nuremberg Trials took place, the first war crimes trial, the so-called Belsen Trial Bergen-Belsen-Prozess , began in Lüneburg on 17 September conducted against 45 former SS men, women and kapos prisoner functionaries from the Bergen-Belsen and Auschwitz concentration camps.

But the dilapidated state of its buildings led to various plans to try to improve living conditions. One proposition that was seriously discussed was to tear down the entire Altstadt and replace it with modern buildings.

The ensuing public protest resulted in Lüneburg becoming the focal point for a new concept: cultural heritage conservation.

Since the early s the town has been systematically restored. A leading figure in this initiative since the late s has been Curt Pomp: against much opposition from politicians and councillors he founded and championed the Lüneburg Altstadt Working Group Arbeitskreis Lüneburger Altstadt for the preservation of historic buildings.

Today Lüneburg is a tourist attraction as a result of the restoration and important sectors of the town's economy also depend on tourism.

The area was located on the Lüneburg Heath and was heavily used particularly by tanks and other armoured vehicles.

The salt mine was closed in , ending the thousand-year tradition of salt mining, although small amounts are still mined for ceremonial purposes.

Small bags of salt may be purchased in the town hall, and bags are given as a gift from the town to all couples married in the town.

After the closing of the salt mines, the town gained new relevance from its university, which was founded in As part of the restructuring of Defence in two of the three Bundeswehr barracks in the town were closed and the remaining one reduced in size.

The Bundesgrenzschutz barracks was also closed. Lüneburg University moved to the site of the old Scharnhorst barracks. The university grew out of the new economics and cultural studies departments set up in the s and their amalgamation with the College of Education Pädagogischen Hochschule or PH that took place in Since its move to the former barracks site the university has enrolled increasing numbers of students.

The expansion of the university is an important contribution to the restructuring of the town into a service centre.

Today an industrial estate, the Lünepark , has been built on the terrain of the old Bundesgrenzschutz barracks with its new industrial premises for entrepreneurs.

The promotion of trade and industry has resulted in many firms from the ICT area locating themselves there. In May the nearby Johannes Westphal Bridge was opened to traffic.

This links the newly created Lünepark with the suburb of Goseburg on the far side of the Ilmenau. Since 5 October Lüneburg has been able to call itself a Hanseatic Town; together with Stade it is one of only two towns in Lower Saxony to bear the title.

Lüneburg already had about 14, inhabitants in the Late Middle Ages and beginning of the Modern Period and was one of the largest 'cities' of its time, but its population shrank with the economic downturn to just 9, in ; then rose again to 10, in With the onset of industrialisation in the 19th century, population growth accelerated.

If 13, were living in the town in , by there were as many as 35, Shortly after the Second World War, refugees and displaced persons from Germany's eastern territories brought an increase in population within just a few months of around 18, people so that the total number in December was 53, In the 70, level was exceeded for the first time.

The town of Lüneburg, its eponymous district and the neighbouring district of Harburg belong to the few regions in Germany that have experienced such a massive growth.

The reasons for this include the growth of areas around the Hamburg Metropolitan Region and the consequent shift of people to those areas.

The Lower Saxon State Office for Statistics has forecast that the town of Lüneburg will have a population of 89, by the year More realistic estimates, however, put the future size Lüneburg at between 75, and 79, in that time frame.

On 31 December , according to the Statistics Office, the official census for Lüneburg recorded 72, people those who had their main residence in the town and after adjustments with other states offices — the highest number in its history.

Currently Lüneburg is the eleventh largest centre of population in Lower Saxony. In addition Lüneburg has particularly close relations with its adjacent municipalities which are also growing and with which it is forming an agglomeration.

The town council has the plan to extend the population by adding these villages to the town area.

The following overview shows the population figures based on the situation at the time. From the figures were based on those 'present in the town', from on those 'living in the town' and since on the 'population who have their main residence in the town'.

Before the numbers were based on inconsistent survey methods. At one time Lüneburg had over 80 breweries.

These beers are brewed today by the Holsten Brewery in Hamburg, although the original yeast stock Hefestämme was destroyed when the Kronen Brewery was taken over.

Only the original Lüneburger Pilsener is still produced as before, although it is now made by the Holsten Brewery and only sold on tap.

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Johannis , Saint - Nicolai. Sur le bord sud du centre-ville est la Lunebourg Water Tower qui agit maintenant comme une tour d'observation.

Lüneburg fait partie de la compagnie de transport Hamburger Verkehrsverbund. Il y a 11 lignes de bus dans la zone urbaine de Lüneburg.

Les villes les plus proches facilement accessibles par chemin de fer sont Hambourg , Hanovre , Lübeck , Lauenburg , Uelzen et Winsen.

Source Authors Original. Previous article Next article. Pour d' autres utilisations, voir Lüneburg homonymie. Lieu de Lüneburg.

Lüneburg Town Hall. Ulrich Madge SPD. Winsen Luhe , Hamburg-Harburg 18 km 11 mi , 36 km. Hamburg-Bergedorf , Schwarzenbek , Lübeck 32 km 20 mi , 43 km 27 mi , 87 km 54 mi.

From the figures were based on those 'present in the town', from on those 'living in the town' and since on the 'population who have their main residence in the town'.

Before the numbers were based on inconsistent survey methods. At one time Lüneburg had over 80 breweries.

These beers are brewed today by the Holsten Brewery in Hamburg, although the original yeast stock Hefestämme was destroyed when the Kronen Brewery was taken over.

Only the original Lüneburger Pilsener is still produced as before, although it is now made by the Holsten Brewery and only sold on tap.

Today there are just two small inn breweries left in Lüneburg. Recently Lüneburg has increasingly developed into a venue for tourists.

Nevertheless, medium-sized and small businesses still play a major role in Lüneburg's economy. The University of Lüneburg has also generated changes which, together with its student population, have stimulated the economy of the region.

Many small and medium-sized businesses are based in Lüneburg. They include the fashion company Roy Robson , DeVauGe Gesundkostwerk one of the largest German manufacturers of vegetarian food and the dairy , which today is part of Hochwald Nahrungsmittel-Werke and makes products, e.

The knitware firm Lucia , once the biggest employer in the town, went bankrupt in In the industrial field there are large local firms like the car interior manufacturers, Johnson Controls , H.

Also based in Lüneburg is the von Stern'schen Druckerei , founded in , the oldest printing firm still in family ownership in the world.

Werum IT Solutions is the largest information technology firm based in the town. The town nursery has created a spa park for tourists and visitors with a 'graduation works', ponds, numerous herbaceous borders and herb gardens which is immediately next to the health spa centre Kurzentrum.

The spa centre has wave pools, salt baths, wellness and sauna facilities, etc. Salztherme Lüneburg ; in addition there is a brine therapy centre which is used for those with skin and respiratory problems.

Lüneburg is not an official health spa like e. In addition, since , the headquarters of the conference hotel group Seminaris has been based here.

Among firms in the technology and service sectors is Gründungszentrum e-novum , which supports new venture firms. Local election results in for the town council of Lüneburg: [8].

Before the Second World War the lord mayor Oberbürgermeister was the full-time head of the town's administration.

On the introduction of the North German council constitution by the British occupation forces power was separated: the voluntary lord mayor and chairman of the town body was the political representative of the town who, like all the members of the town council was elected by the people, whilst the administration was headed up by a full-time chief municipal director, who was elected by the town council.

Since , as a result of the reform of the local constitution, both functions again have been combined in the post of a full-time lord mayor, who is now directly elected by the townsfolk.

In addition to the lord mayor there are other mayors elected by the council who support and represent the lord mayor in his civic duties.

Despite its moderate size Lüneburg has many partnerships with other towns. In June delegates of all its twinned towns met in Lüneburg and the surrounding area and celebrated the biggest partnership gathering in the region since the Second World War.

Lüneburg is twinned with: [9]. In addition there are various partnerships with other German towns Kulmbach and Köthen.

Not only are plays of all styles put on, but also operas, operettas, musicals and ballets. Although the financial means of the Lüneburg Theatre are comparatively limited, it is no 'provincial stage' and can hold its ground successfully against the many theatres in nearby Hamburg.

In addition Lüneburg has a large number of amateur theatres, that also produce regular performances.

Such a variety in amateur drama is otherwise only found in large cities like Hamburg or Hanover. Examples include arranged in order of year founded :.

The historic town is itself a kind of open-air museum a "Rothenburg of the North" , but there are numerous museums and historic churches St.

Michaelis , St. Johannis , St. The most important museums are the German Salt Museum in the premises of the old Lüneburg Saltworks , in which the significance of salt in the Middle Ages and the extraction of salt is portrayed, and the Museum of the Principality of Lüneburg, in which the town's history and the history of the surrounding area is captured.

Also worthy of mention are the East Prussian Regional Museum , the nearby North German Brewery Museum with a gallery of valuable drinking vessels over years , the Kronen Brewery of Lüneburg and the Lüneburg Nature Museum on the edge of the subsidence zone.

Lüneburg is one of the few towns in North Germany whose historic centre was not destroyed during the Second World War.

Nevertheless, the general neglect of its buildings until the s and the damage in the area of subsidence has led to gaps in the historic architecture of the town.

In addition the demolition of ramshackle buildings in the s and s and the construction of shops with a contemporary design broke up the historic appearance of many rows of houses.

Since the beginning of the s, however, Lüneburg has been carefully restored. The restoration process revealed hitherto hidden ceiling frescos , medieval pottery workshops and many historic soakaways Sickergruben from which a considerably better picture of life in the Middle Ages resulted.

In the Lüneburg Stadtteil of Kaltenmoor is St. Stephen's St. Stephanus , the oldest ecumenical building in the town, with Protestant and Catholic churches under one roof.

Other buildings worthy of mention are the three remaining town churches: St. Johannis am Sande completed , St. Michaelis where Johann Sebastian Bach was a choirboy from to , and the relatively 'modern' St.

Nicolai which was built in The Church of St. Lambertus St. Lamberti was demolished in due to its dilapidated state; it stood in the subsidence area.

The Luna Fountain Lunabrunnen in front of the town hall is graced by a bronze statue of the moon goddess with bow and arrow; the original dating to was stolen in and melted down; the present statue is a replica dating to The port is also home to the "Old Crane" Alter Kran , a wooden, medieval riverside crane that is still in working order today and which has two large wheels inside that enable the crane cable to be raised and lowered.

The fire station moved in autumn to a new building on the edge of the town centre; the Altes Kaufhaus has since been converted into a hotel.

On the southern edge of the town centre is the Lüneburg Water Tower which now acts as an observation tower. In front of the gates of the old town is Lüne Abbey , a former Benedictine nunnery.

It was built in and has been restored. About 2 kilometres 1 mile west of Lüneburg, in the villages of Reppenstedt and Vögelsen , is a well-preserved section of the historic Lüneburg Landwehr , a boundary embankment and ditch, that can be walked.

In , the festival Hansetage took place in Lüneburg. The Hansetage is an event which takes place in a different town every year.

Nearly , visitors were attracted by this event. Football soccer is the most popular sport in Lüneburg, as in Germany in general; ice-hockey and basketball are also popular.

Most teams compete in the Regionalliga , which is highly ranked within Germany. Lüneburg is part of the transportation company Hamburger Verkehrsverbund.

There are 11 bus lines in the urban area of Lüneburg. As well as Lüneburg station , there is a smaller one located in Bardowick.

The town has one university, the Leuphana Universität Lüneburg previously known only as the Universität Lüneburg. The university has more than 7, students.

There are 14 high schools in the town: 5 Gymnasien , 4 Realschulen , and 5 Hauptschulen ; there is currently 1 Gesamtschule , the "IGS Lüneburg" founded in In addition, there are 6 vocational schools, 3 special schools, 3 private schools, and 12 elementary schools.

The nearby Lüneburg Heath is an anthropogenic heath. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Lüneburg, Germany.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Place in Lower Saxony, Germany. Coat of arms. Location of Lüneburg within Lüneburg district.

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Dezember Hansestadt Lüneburg. Retrieved Wahlkreiseinteilung für die Wahl zum Niedersächsischen Landtag.

In: Achtzehntes Gesetz zur Änderung des Bundeswahlgesetzes. Anlage zu Artikel 1. Bonn März , S. Leuphana Universität Lüneburg.

Members of the Hanseatic League by quarter. Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Brunswick Magdeburg. Cologne 1 Dortmund 1. Towns and municipalities in Lüneburg district.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Lüneburg Town Hall. Ulrich Mädge SPD. Largest groups of foreign residents [5].

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